Category: Politics

Example: Il’ma ‘jula ameri’het jilih su? (INF)open text this QUESTPART?
Can you open this text?

Again an example sentence which does not relate to anything. The term has a reference which my family might get but nothing I can get across easily. Well, you can open stores, files, doors, and similar things. To word is very similar to the equivalents in German and English. Jula means open and an avutu’het jula, ie an open car is a cabrio. Jula’het means opener or handle. I know that you probably will not ask about this, but a handle in a programming context is also calqued as jula’het. Jula’tan would be a rather political term, related to immigration. It refers to openness towards immigration.

Example: Xe’vana hadi’het’xe ,xe’skavu kovomin’het’xe, venil.
(1S-like country-GEN1S, 1S-hate government-GEN1S, but)
I like my country but I hate my government.

I have mentioned this word already. It is part of the word ‘xetsukovomin (literally: choose-government). It is distinguished from the word ‘shensa by the legitimation. ‘kovomin refers to the rule justified by the people, ‘shensa means to rule by being selected (by birth, or religious rule).

A specific government is kovomin’het. Kovomin’tan means politics (even those which are not that democratic). And what is the term for a politician? Lentine’he, the word is derived from ‘lentine: to represent.

kali’het: city

Example: Xe’ki’isa Karilisruhe’han kali semynu’het masi.
(1S-FUT-go Karlsruhe-ALL city week next.)
Next week I will go to Karlsruhe.

This is not only an example sentence but also an excuse if I do not post a word of the day on Thursday next week. It also showed how the word kali is used quite often: It is used as strange kind of adjective after a city name. This is especially relevant for places like New York (City and State) or KaMaRi (kali, rekijo and nanti) which exist on several levels of organization. KaMaRi is by the way an abbreviation for Kalimnintan Maiju Riandu, the 3 cities, out of which KaMaRi consists. The rejistanian capital Sike is not a rekijo, but it does require ‘kali‘ because sike means “there”.

Kali’het and any degree of organization refers to a capital of this area. Thus, a kali’het tani is a national capital. A kali’he is a citizen in the true meaning of the term: Someone who lives in a city. Kali’tan is urbanization. Kali as adjective can also mean municipal.

And now for music: Tubular Crusade by gwEm and Counter Reset. I have to admit that chiptune is something I love. This is something most of the people around me do not understand. My SO considers most of the music I love pretty strange and so do my parents. Fortunately headphones exist. This song is NSFW due to language. To explain what it is is a bit difficult (Writing about music is a bit like dancing about architecture). It has a really energetic and uplifting sound and it reminds a bit of the band Scooter only that gwEm and Counter Reset are much more eloquent. As obligatory conlanging reference: They use a very good rhythm in their speech, which is easier in English than in say Rejistanian because English as both shorter words and a less strange stress pattern. Despite that, translating this song to rejistanian would be interesting to say the least.

About human rights

I have to admit that I never tried to translate the first sentence of the declaration of human rights into Rejistanian. I did try to write a rejistanian constitution though and thus have a fairly good idea how it should work. The text is: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Yu! Yikes! If there is something which was designed to exploit all peculiarities of Rejistanian to make te translation most difficult, it would not be that different.

‘born equal’ for example is something which, if you are in the rejistanian iti’het makes no sense. Equal always has to refer to something. Yes, humans are born via the same method, and in about equal size, but this equality is not what is meant here. The equality which is The specifying statement here is ‘in dignity and rights’ which does not help that much since these words are also difficult and it still is possible that the intended parsing was different “born (free and equal) in dignity and rights”.

‘Dignity’ is not that much of a hard term to translate, but it has unfortunate implications in that it is a mostly religious term. It would be hard to explain it without explaining the creation myth of inikresaism. I do not want to get into this today…

‘Rights’ would be translated by ‘yva’het’ny’ which could very well be translated as ‘privileges’ as well.

‘Are endowed with’ is something which does not parse well for me, I know the meaning, but it is one of these terms which is just so very ODD. In Rejistanian, theis poetic expression gets just expressed as ‘lil to have.

Demna’tan for conscience is derived from the word for the center of emotion The rejistanis seem to think that the decision to act morally derives from the emotions, not from rationality. So mentioning the rational and the emotional side is actually something which the original does not do as explicitely.

‘Should’ is also a simple word, but it is a very ambiguous word. Trying to define it except as ‘a more polite term parents use to say must’ is HARD. This poses a problem: I cannot translate a word unless I understand it.

Spirit… not as in ‘ghost’ but as in ‘idea’, or maybe here mental state. Or maybe it would be easier not to use this idea at all and just use reja (method, manner) here… *long pause* *chewing on the lip then realizing that this habit kicked in again* *curses self*

Brotherhood is a concept I understand, but it makes not that much sense in the rejistanian family structure, where family structure is to a point a matter of conscious decision.

So what do we get if we tried despite all of this: Hej’he’ny hakim min’rala’mevika linux ji min’lil yva’het’ny ji kansu’tan. Min’lil hadada’tan ji demna’tan ji min’rala’mulak ‘sutuva luru’he’han reja erid’tan kene.

Literally: All people are born free and they have privileges and inherent dignity. They have ability to reason and conscience (ie: the idea to behave correctly out of their emotions) and they are expected to behave towards others in the way of the ideology of being together.

There are many reasons to choose a rejistanian word of the day. I have already scrolled through the dictionary to find interesting ones, I have drawn inspiration from the aggregator, I had word requests, I had follow ups on other words,… This one was chosen because I had an excellent idea for an example sentence. But first: the various forms of it:
‘ytin: to change
ytin: changed, skewed
ytin’he: Someone who is changed
ytin’het: something changed, also: variable
ytin’tan: change

Please note that change here just means the process not change as in money. This would be relixa’het kelda (literally: money remaining).

An interesting compound word is ‘ytinvisko (change speech/language) it means to translate.
‘ytinvisko: to translate
ytinvisko’he: translator
ytinvisko’het: compiler
ytinvisko’tan: translation

So now, what is the sentence which I was yearning to use as example? Xetsu’iln ytin’tan, xetsutani’iln xures Hank͜hila Sede! (Choose-IMP2PL change-TAN, elect_nationally-IMP2PL again Hank͜hila Sede = Vote for change, re-elect Hank~hila Sede!) Hank~hila Sede was the longest-serving lentine mje’he (which at that time was comparable to the position of the president) of Rejistania.

k~h and k͜h are both the same digraph. The character between them is called a helku’het (link). It just indicates a change in pronunciation from how the two letters usually would be pronounced. While it does not appear in rejistanian, it does occur in proper names transliterated into the rejistanian alphabet.

Wow! I made it through this entire article without an Obama joke 😉

shensa’het: [authoritarian] government
shensa’he: king

Mi’shensa tani’het sa. (3S-rule country-HET seven: He rules the seven kingdoms)

‘shensa and related forms have a strong authoritarian connotation. A democratic kovomin’het (government) would not use ‘shensa but ‘lentine (represent).

Small grammatical tidbit related tot the sentence above: like in Turkish, the plural suffix ‘ny is omitted when a number follows.

Bandwagons are nice and thus, when David J. Peterson announced that he is the person behind the Dothraki language, I thought participating in the hype was okay.

\begin{rant}On the other hand and despite all the positive things, which it brings for conlanging, I have to admit that it makes my guts clench. I am one of these cave-dwellers who considers many things of the modern world bad. Mainly among these is the entertainment industry. These people are IMHO these first to be put against the wall when the revolution will come*. I believe that their views on copyright are extremely harmful to society and that they tend to be hypocrites who do not practice what they preach. This annoys me greatly. I can accept someone being a morally bankrupt slani’he**, but at least be honest about that. I think that the example of Na’vi and Klingon shows that the film industry seems to see copyright not as the right of the creator, but as a way to make money. I hope that the contract of Peterson is not one where he has to ask for permission to use the language himself or has to put up with slani’he’ny selme who do not know an infinitive from an imperative make the dialogue in the sequel. I think that would be worst (and happened to Klingon already).\end{rant}

*I was using a literary quote to make a point, not advocate violence against anybody.
**the translation for slani in my dictionary is a series of punctuation characters 😉

As you might have noticed, I start with words of a personal significance or those which I like to use to illustrate grammatical structures. The word ‘xetsu is one of the latter ones.

The nouns are as you expect them to be with the rejistanian derivation system: (xetsu’he: someone who choses, xetsu’het: option, alternative and in the plural: settings, xetsu’tan: choice (as a concept)). The adjective means that something can be chosen.

Then, there are strange compounds: ‘xetsukovomin, ‘xetsutani, ‘xetsunanti, ‘xetsurekijo and ‘xetsukali. All of these mean ‘to elect’ and all the ‘het forms mean ‘election’ however, these words are all different. Except the first one, all refer to different levels of government: while xetsukovomin’het is the general term for an election, xetsutani’het is a federal one (tani’het means country), a xetsunanti’het occurs on nanti (state) level, a xetsurekijo’het on rekijonal (or regional) level and a xetsukali’het on municipal level (kali’het means city).

The grammatical significance of the word ‘xetsukovomin is a strange one. For some odd reason, I often confused the order of the verbal prefixes, but have no issues remembering this conjugated verb: Min’ki’lanjamesit’rala’xetsukovomin’ta.

Min indicates the 3rd person plural.
ki is the future tense marker,
lanjamesit is a subjunctive form, which indicates a similar probability as the ‘maybe’ in: Maybe I will win the lottery. It is a compound of two other subjunctive forms: lanja and mesit. (the lack of a subjunctive marker indicates the indicative)
rala is the passive voice (its lack indicates active voice)
and ta the negation.

As such, the word means: it is possible but not very likely that they won’t get elected. As I wrote earlier people wondered what this word is actually good for. Well, during the LoCoWriMo, I actually managed to use it. Syku Inik’s best friend was said this to a reporter after he implied that Syku was a chanceless candidate and Syku just said that during an election everything is possible:

{Asav’il Kansu Sanateni’han ji Kiran Milan’han. Min’ki’lanjamesit’rala’xetsukovomin’ta asty’het’jet jilih. Hakim mi’ma ‘kidhi.}

(Consider Kansu Sanateni and Kiran Milan. It is possible, but not very likely that they won’t get elected in this year. Everything can happen.)

If Sapir and Whorf were right (in the strongest sense), the USA, the UK, Canada and many other nations where English is the main language would not be real democracies. Of course candidates could be elected, but since the English language lacks a handy expression like the German term “kandidieren” and has to use clumsy terms around it, it would mean that the people who are eligible are chosen by a king/president/giant penguin. 😉

Rejistanian was inspired by German in this respect and has the expression ‘atani. What makes this word so special? Mostly that I use it to illustrate derivation quite often since it was the first I encountered which exists in all noun classes. So I will present a quick excursion into the world rejistanian words.

The infinitive of a verb starts with an apostrophe. This only indicates the shift of the stress from the second to the first syllable and has no other phonetic quality. ‘atani: to run for office

The adjective or adverb is not marked: atani: related to a campaign/candidacy

The ‘he class refers to a person who is related to the word: atani’he: candidate

The ‘het class refers to a concrete object or thing (or at least to something more concrete than the ‘tan class): atani’het: campaign

The ‘tan class refers to abstract objects: atani’tan: candidacy.

erid’tan: ideology
This word is used also as a kind of equivalent to the -ism of English:
erid’tan alte: communism
erid’tan exkira: capitalism
erid’tan jaratu: racism (jaratu means ‘ethnic group’ or ‘tribe’)
erid’tan jasika: jasikaism, jasika-capitalism (This is a rejistanian ideology which means that the basic sectors must be covered by state-owned companies (the original meaning of jasika was ‘state-owned company’, by now it just means ‘company’), but that they must be restricted in respect of what services they can offer. Under erid’tan jasika, a state-owned post existed, but packages over a certain size and guaranteed intra-week delivery were only provided by private companies)
erid’tan kalesa: kalesic democracy (a democratic system in which the different districts replace their delegates at different times in the legislative period)
erid’tan linux: libertarianism (linux’tan means freedom and, yes, it is a reference to the operating system)
erid’tan menhes: philosophical materialism
erid’tan rekijo: rekijonalism (rekijonalists want to abolish all government structures over the level of the rekijo. If they existed in the USA, they would not only oppose the federal government but probably also the states as too big entities)
erid’tan shensa’ta: anarchy, positive term which anarchists use (no matter if -syndicalists or -capitalists) more detailed terms are created by further qualification: erid’tan shensa’ta linux and erid’tan shensa’ta alte.
erid’tan sosija: both socialism and more recently social democracy.
erid’tan valumu’ta: anarchism, breakdown of order (It is not really an ideology, but that does not hinder hypothetical rejistanis in the real world to use it for Somalia and similar places)

The -ist forms are created by replacing ‘tan by ‘he: erid’he jasika means jasikaist, erid’he alte means communist. Erid’he alone appears very seldom but has the meaning ‘someone who is commited to something’