Category: Abstract


‘hakim: to complete

Example: Xe’la’ovik sdiditu’het’ny hakim.
(1S-PST-eat pomegranate-PL all)
I ate all the pomegranates.

Hakim is a strange word. It is one of the early words. It was created before I discovered NationStates. However, ‘hakim is a rather recent derivation. Since hakim means “all of”, “everything of”, ‘hakim means “to complete”. As such it is different from ‘uta since ‘uta would be used for activities and ‘hakim for objects. So you ‘hakim the puzzle but you ‘uta doing your homework.

Example: Xe’ena ‘isena sistenha njinji’ta al.
(1S-need.to (INF)include system intangible many)
I need to install much software.

Yes, on a new system, a lot of things have to be installed among them, some of the worst hacks and kludges out there. Some of these are really… kludgy (or ika). One of them, I should document: To make my Logitech Marble Mouse trackball (or for the NaNoWriMo crowd: my rat*) work with udev requires a few commands to be exceuted at the start of your X11 session:

#!/bin/bash
xinput set-int-prop “Logitech USB Trackball” “Evdev Wheel Emulation Button” 8 8
xinput set-int-prop “Logitech USB Trackball” “Evdev Wheel Emulation” 8 1
xinput set-prop “Logitech USB Trackball” “Evdev Wheel Emulation Axes” 6 7 4 5
xinput set-button-map “Logitech USB Trackball” 1 8 3 4 5 6 7 2 9

This makes the vertical and horizontal scrolling work when simultaneously pressing the small left button. And has that one work as middle mouse button. Horizontal scrolling is often needed to make full use of the crap some people call webdesign, thus it is required to keep me from being too annoyed with the web and considering bombing it back to the stoneageHTML3.2 days. ;)

How is that posting related to conlangs? Well, noticed the cursive text? It would be the kind of phrases which ‘ena in one conjugation or another one would replace in translation. BTW: instead of “I need X for Y”, rejistanis often prefer a more impersonal construction when talking about demands: “X mi’rala’ena Y’han” X is required for the benefit of X. As adjective, it means ‘needed’ or ‘required’ and the noun ena’tan means requirement while ena’het just refers to something that is required.

BTW: I want to thank taronyu for mentioning me in his presentation in Edinburgh (youtube video). It makes me feel as if my 9 (or so) years on working on rejistanian payed off. ;)

EDIT: Link is right now.

Example: Oda’het siki ji dijuri’het min’yri kynha alnany oda’het siki aji.
(word friendly and weapon 3PL-succeed easy AUGCMP word friendly only)
A friendly word and a weapon succeed far easier than just a friendly word.

This is what Al Capone probably would have said if he was rejistani.

‘oda means to express in words or toformulate something, oda’het means word and oda’tan sentence. This is a rather odd deviation, but rejistanian is not an engelang. It is supposed to have the kind of deviations which no one is supposed to get by the bucketfull. I can kinda see that a sentence is more than the words is consists of and thus be considered an abstraction of oda’het.

There are some strange terms which are derived from this stem, none of them are derived obviously:
eduoda’het: idiom (literally: word set)
himoda’het: syllable (literally: wordpart)
himoda’het vetix: affix (literally: expressive wordpart)
lejen’het oda: monolingual dictionary (word book)
oda’het aru: noun (exist word)
oda’het hite’han: adverb, adjective (word towards specificness)
oda’het va: verb (do word)
oda’het va hakela: auxilliary verb (intentional do word)
odaveka: witty (literally: good-formulating)

tye: real

Example: Tekne’het tye mi’ma’ta ‘okatu demu’tan’ja veka!
(world real 3S-be.able-NEG (INF)compete tale-AGAINST good)
The real world cannot compete against a good story.

The word ‘tye means to be real, tye, the adjective just means real. Like in the term actual in English, it has a certain connotation of ‘in contrast to what was expected’.

Tye’tan is reality. Tye’he does not refer to a realist though, it is just the real, actual person, eg: Hej’ny min’visko ,Santa mi’enju kanada’ra nahtaj, het ,tye’he mi’enju Helsinki ji mi’skavu lama’he’ny, venil (People say say that Santa lives in Canada, but the real one lives in Helsinki and hates children).

In other news: I have decided in NationStates to make a little competition related to translating text into rejistanian. The prize is being able to define the style modifier of the Orange-Blues for the next world cup. If you want to participate, translate this text into rejistanian and comment it here:

My younger brother, my older brother and me play in the team of our kalesa. The team is called Aelanaua Seli and it is not very good. We always lose the first match of the season. And we always lose the last match of the season. And we always lose every match inbetween.

EDIT: I am considering making a new weekly feature on this blog: To weekly introduce a piece of free music to this blog, preferably related to the Rejistanian Word of the Day. Free here does not refer to the price but to the license. I am very unhappy with the way the music companies work and thus boycott them (with the exception of a few world music CDs *blushes*) since a few years. I instead listen to a lot of free music from sites like jamendo.com. The song for today is by Steep: Your reality.

This is a song, which seemed unremarkable to me at first, but then, I suddenly and for no reason had it stuck in my head and no idea why or even what song it was. Eventually I found out, of course. The line, which I still remembered was this one: “Asavleji’il ,il’mesu mi, het ,il’lanja’aru tye’tan’il.” Of course, they sang it in english: Believe what you see, cause it might be your reality.

jolu: direct

Example: Yjik’het jolu mi’tinhu alna!
(road direct 3S-be.advantageous CMP)
The direct road is better.

Sometimes, you find a word and it immediately speaks to you and allows you to much easier express something. Sometimes, this happens when reading information about the ext2 filesystem. The term was ‘indirection’ and apart from the internas of an inode (which BTW is not related to the iDisease by iDiots of these days) it seemed to be everywhere.There always seemed to be places you go to just to be told you need to go elsewhere, especially in a school system where no one seems to be responsible for anything by default. Why am I saying this? To understand the idea behind the word jolu, of course. Next to the normal meanings which you would expect, jolu also is used for the less legal but more easy areas of the economy: the mijit’het jolu is the black market. It is direct because it does not require all this hassle with the government regulations. In the sentence from the song, I chose it to translate radical. It was probably not the best choice out there, but it seemed to fit the idea of direct life, not mediated by institutions, but experienced immediately with the own eyes, ears and hearts.

Example: Kisxan mi’la’itva reja Mitilek.
Kisxan 3S-PST-fail method Mitilek.
Kisxan failed in the same way Mitilek did.

This is one of the words, I did not want to search on my blog to make sure that I do not reduplicate an entry. reja is used very much. It is used without suffix quite often to mean ‘in the way of’. The example shows it used that way. Seeing that many derivations are not quite regular, this is occasionally required if the adverb/adjective has a completely different meaning than the noun. BTW: This is one of the very few times when I deprecated grammar: Originally, this was a suffix, but it seemed not within the spirit of rejistanian.

Reja’tan means method or algorithm. In the song it was used as reja’tan semek, ie: method/algorithm related to cooking, ie recipe. Some programming books use recipes to illustrate the concept of an algorithm, so it fits.

There is another word for distant, which is jenti. The difference is not as easy to express. It has something to do with the distance and discomfort to reach a place. A taren’het is not near, but it is easier to reach than a jenti’het. Taren has another purpose, which jenti does not share: place deixis. Rejistanis would express something like: “This fruit, that fruit or that fruit over there” via “jilih’het vi sike’het vi taren’het” (literally: “this one, the one there or the distant one”. Yes, rejistanis can very happily leave out the noun if they think it is already known and instead ‘typecast’ other words into nouns). “Namin’het” can replace “jilih’het” if another of these objects was referred to earlier.

In addition, a milhan’het taren is an away game.

Example: Lelej’tan mi’taren ,yri’tan mi’jenti, venil. (hope is far away but success is further away)

I have been reading about some existing conlangs recently and I am annoyed by things related to them. One thing which bugs me is that most of them generally are very sexist. aUI is probably the worst offender in this respect since it makes women ‘not active’ with its construction. But other languages which appear innocent at the beginning also are offenders. For example Ilaksh. It is of course the 2nd derivation of the root which means woman and the 1st which means man. This angers me. Apparently, grammatically, women are an afterthought, not as important as the men. This is not a radical feminist thought, IMHO. It annoyed me in my primary school days already that when we hat to conjugate verbs, the 3rd person singular was ‘er/sie/es’ (he/she/it) and I confused my class teacher by, when having to conjugate a verb, always used ‘sie/er/es’ (she/he/it). Not because I thought women were more important, but just to show that it was perfectly acceptable this way. Also, job ads in real life often have the ‘neutral’ male form and then in brackets ‘m/w’ to indicate that both genders can apply. This is supposedly neutral. IMHO it still shows a preference though by using a specific order. For quite a time, this was just something which bugged me for no good reason. Today, however, I read that the order of the surname in the alphabet can (slightly) influence the success of persons in real life (in ’59 seconds’ by Richard Wiseman). Females are in a certain respect ‘last’ the same way the Zuse’s are alphabetically. Now I wonder if we could reverse the gender gap by mentioning males last.

Rejistanian solved these issues in the language and the conculture in a very gender neutral way: It has not only gender-neutral pronouns which are normally used, but the names are also assigned before birth so there are no flowery female names and strong male names. This was in-universe to make sure that the child would not have a bad fate in the afterlife if she or he died during birth. It led to some interesting implications of the name in the rejistanian religion and society.

Outside of rejistanian… no idea… I am hiligting a problem, not mentioning a solution. I guess the easiest thing would be to make sure that rejistanian becomes the world language :þ And if I ever have to construct an ad for a job, I will use the female form of the job title and ‘(w/m)’. It might do nothing but confuse people but that in itself is a good thing. ;)


Something else which strikes me as odd is that conlangers seem to spend a disproportionate time on phonology but very seldomly speak their languages*. I made no formal surveys here, but it seems to be a very prominent topic in the lists and on IRC. I understand the interest in foreign sounds, however I do wonder what the point of an intricate and highly complex phonology is when it is not spoken. I probably spent too little time on it and thus have a rather ‘German’ phonology, I admit that. However, even this is rather hard to speak at the beginning. You need to get into the right mental state. You need to be aware of the stress and the infection. It is not as easy as it appears. It did become easier with every soundbyte I recorded though. So, maybe stop reading this blogpost and read a paragraph in your language out loud. I am sure it will be happy about the attention. ;)

*or if they do, it just seldomly finds the way online which gives me a false impression. Also possible.


In other news, I started working on a universal bending exolang. While it has no official name, I call it quuxlang. Quuxlang is spoken by human-like creatures, at least concerning the shape of their body. Their brain/mind probably works differently. Otherwise, they would not speak such a language. Let me summarize the weirdness:
* no nouns
* no personal pronouns
* no adjectives

So how does quuxlang work? It has relations of 2 or more objects/persons/etc and specifiers, which, well, specify the kind of relation it is. There are also particles which link the specified relation or give the rough equivalent to tenses. There are also pro-relations which are the equivalent to pronouns in other languages. Let me explain this via an example.

uku bantiNala NIa i xugulunYmY fuu i ikI xuhimunuksa fuu ela sijuntabURe ruI
ela sisipa kae i uku sihiHikatA li.

uku bantiNala NIa: uku is a tense which means that the relation existed, but the parts it consist of still exist, ba- is a prefix which indicates that this is a relevant disagreement for the story. It is kinda as if a special infection would be required in a book if hero and villain are used in the same clause. ntiNala means ‘a relation between human and dragon’ and NIa specifies it as a movement of an actor to a place.

i xugulunYmY fuu: i is the simultaneous ‘and’. The previous specified relation left it open who went where so this is now explained: ‘dragon and cave’ ‘actor sleeps at location’. The tense is not mentioned since it does not differ. The prefix xu- explains that the antagonist is described here.

i ikI xuhimunuksa fuu: As further specificatio it is added that the dragon sleeps near its eggs (‘dragon and eggs’ ‘actor sleeps at’). The tense ikI indicates that the relation no longer exists but existed.

ela sijuntabURe ruI: ela is the sequential ‘and’, though here, a ‘then’ would be a better translation. The prefix si- indicates that the protagonist is mentioned. The relation is ‘man and egg(s)’ and the specifier ‘man takes object’. Thus, the man takes the egg or eggs.

ela sisipa kae: si- is again the protagonist suffix and sipa is a pro-relation referring to the last mentioned relation, ie: the man and the unspecified number of eggs. The specifier now is ‘actor carries object’.

i uku sihiHikatA li: and simultaneously, with both parts of the relation still existing even though the relation does no longer, ‘the man and the village’ ‘actor returns to place’.

So the text is about a human who stole the egg or eggs of a sleeping dragon and brought them home into his village.

Is this confusing? I hope so. I got the idea for this language when I read a thread where someone wanted to create a weird language. Let me preempt a few objections you have:
* you cannot describe things!!! I can compare things to each other. That suffices, hopefully. While I cannot say that I have brown hair, I can say ‘currently person to higher up speaks and simultaneously hair to person belongs and simultaneously hair and ground have the same color’. The first specified relation would explain who is the person here, that this person is indeed me.
*A relation is just a unified subject and object!!! Well, there is no rhyme or reason to the way the relations are composed, there is no rule for this, so why impose a pattern?
*Not every verb is transitive!!! In Quuxlang? Sorry, but here every specifier is transitive. Which for example means that I could not say that the dragon was asleep, I had to say where it slept.


And now for the word of the day: it is nahsua which means south or ‘south of’. Nahsua’het is ‘the south’ as in ‘a specific area to the south of us or generally associated with the south’. This word strays from the current topic, but I have eventually managed to scan some handwritten rejistanian text and uploaded it, so I wanted to use the first word of the text. This also means that the example sentence today is written, not spoken. It is the first one of the file: Nahsua’het mi’oejelu. The south is beautiful.

Sorry for this almost contentless posting. A ‘quick’ call to my significant other took more than 2 hours.

Example: Najny’het ly min’la’itva. Najny ly’het mi’la’yri’ta jarav. (Attempt 3 3PL-PST-fail. Attempt 3-ORD 3S-PST-succeed-NEG close. 3 attempts failed. The third almost succeeded.) listen

While we have reached the tangible perceptions, ‘hamik is not an easy one. It is roughly the opposite of ‘to be smooth’. If something has a specific structure, it is/feels hamik. This is however a specific meaning of the word. Even if a structure is not tangible it can be still expressed by this word and it is far less likely to be said about a rock* than about treebark because to a certain point there is the lingering conotation of intention. To emphasize that something feels structured, the verb ‘kanti is used. Well, rejistanian has four terms for ‘to feel’, ‘demna and ‘sanja refer to ‘feeling emotion’, ‘jdunu means ‘perceive something by the sense of touch’ or ‘to feel something’ and ‘kanti means ‘to have the properties which can be felt’. The difference between ‘jdunu and ‘kanti is that between “I feel a hole in this cloth” and “this cloth feels smooth”.

Hamik’het is something that is hamik. Hamik’tan means structure, or pattern. The idiomatic expression hamik’tan’ny rejavisko means just “grammar”.

Example: Jdunu’het kesemak mi’kanti hamik. (skin snake 3S-feel structured. the skin of a snake feels structured) listen

*rejistanian geologists will probably use it about geological features though.

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